I2C

I2C is serial communication bus. It is very popular in embedded development and mostly used to communicate to various low speed peripherals, such as eeproms and various sensors.

The control and use of I2C fits nicely into the Device-Driver-Component model described in this book. It is a serial interface and the controlling Device object will have to read/write characters one by one, just like it was with UART. It would be nice if we coud reuse the Character Driver we implemented before. However, the I2C is multi-master / multi-slave bus and there is a need to specify the slave ID (or address) when initiating read and/or write operation.

ID Adaptor

It is quite clear that some kind of ID Device Adaptor is needed. It will be constructed with additional ID parameter and will be responsible to forward all the API calls from the Character Driver to I2C Device while adding one extra parameter of ID.

Image: Using ID Adapter

The implementation of such adaptor is very simple and straightforward:

template <typename TDevice>
class IdAdaptor
{
public:
    // Type of the underlaying device.
    typedef TDevice Device;

    // Character type defined in the wrapped device
    typedef typename TDevice::CharType CharType;

    // Device identification type defined in the wrapped device class.
    typedef typename TDevice::DeviceIdType DeviceIdType;

    IdAdaptor(Device& device, DeviceIdType id)
      : device_(device),
        id_(id)
    {
    }

    template <typename TFunc>
    void setCanReadHandler(TFunc&& func)
    {
        device_.setCanReadHandler(id_, std::forward<TFunc>(func));
    }

    template <typename TFunc>
    void setCanWriteHandler(TFunc&& func)
    {
        device_.setCanWriteHandler(id_, std::forward<TFunc>(func));
    }

    template <typename TFunc>
    void setReadCompleteHandler(TFunc&& func)
    {
        device_.setReadCompleteHandler(id_, std::forward<TFunc>(func));
    }

    template <typename TFunc>
    void setWriteCompleteHandler(TFunc&& func)
    {
        device_.setWriteCompleteHandler(id_, std::forward<TFunc>(func));
    }

    template <typename... TArgs>
    void startRead(TArgs&&... args)
    {
        device_.startRead(id_, std::forward<TArgs>(args)...);
    }

    template <typename... TArgs>
    bool cancelRead(TArgs&&... args)
    {
        return device_.cancelRead(id_, std::forward<TArgs>(args)...);
    }

    template <typename... TArgs>
    void startWrite(TArgs&&... args)
    {
        device_.startWrite(id_, std::forward<TArgs>(args)...);
    }

    template <typename... TArgs>
    bool cancelWrite(TArgs&&... args)
    {
        return device_.cancelWrite(id_, std::forward<TArgs>(args)...);
    }

    template <typename... TArgs>
    bool suspend(TArgs&&... args)
    {
        return device_.suspend(id_, std::forward<TArgs>(args)...);
    }

    template <typename... TArgs>
    void resume(TArgs&&... args)
    {
        device_.resume(id_, std::forward<TArgs>(args)...);
    }

    template <typename... TArgs>
    bool canRead(TArgs&&... args)
    {
        return device_.canRead(id_, std::forward<TArgs>(args)...);
    }

    template <typename... TArgs>
    bool canWrite(TArgs&&... args)
    {
        return device_.canWrite(id_, std::forward<TArgs>(args)...);
    }

    template <typename... TArgs>
    CharType read(TArgs&&... args)
    {
        return device_.read(id_, std::forward<TArgs>(args)...);
    }

    template <typename... TArgs>
    void write(TArgs&&... args)
    {
        device_.write(id_, std::forward<TArgs>(args)...);
    }

private:
    Device& device_;
    DeviceIdType id_;
};

The same adaptor class is implemented in embxx/device/IdDeviceCharAdapter.h file of embxx library.

Operations Queue

The I2C protocol allows existence of multiple independent slaves on the same bus. It means there may be several independent Components that communicate to different I2C devices (for example EEPROM and temperature sensor), but must share the same Device control object and may issue read/write requests to it in parallel. To resolve this problem, there must be some kind of operation queuing facility that is responsible to queue all the read/write requests to the Device and issue them one by one.

The objects' usage map looks like this:

Image: Using Op Queue

Such queue is a platform/product independent piece of code and it should be implemented without using dynamic memory allocation and/or exceptions. It means that it should receive number of various Driver objects, that may issue independent read/write requests to it (i.e. size of the internal queue), as a template parameter and probably use Static (Fixed Size) Queue to queue all the requests that are coming in. It should also receive callback storage types to report when a new character can be read/written, as well as when read/write operation is complete.

template <typename TDevice,
          std::size_t TSize,
          typename TCanDoOpHandler = embxx::util::StaticFunction<void()>,
          typename TOpCompleteHandler = 
              embxx::util::StaticFunction<void (const embxx::error::ErrorStatus&)> >
class DeviceOpQueue
{
public:
    DeviceOpQueue(TDevice& device);
    ...
private:
    typedef embxx::container::StaticQueue<..., TSize> Queue;
    Queue queue_;
};

When the TSize template parameter is set to 1, there is no need for all the queuing facility and the DeviceOpQueue class may become a simple pass-through inline class using template specialisation:

template <typename TDevice>
class DeviceOpQueue<TDevice, 1>
{
public:

    typedef typename TDevice::PinIdType PinIdType;

    template <typename... TArgs>
    void startRead(TArgs&&... args)
    {
        device_.startRead(std::forward<TArgs>(args)...)
    }

    template <typename... TArgs>
    bool cancelRead(PinIdType id, TArgs&&... args)
    {
        static_cast<void>(id); // No use for id in the Device itself
        return device_.cancelRead(std::forward<TArgs>(args)...)
    }

    template <typename... TArgs>
    bool suspend(PinIdType id, TArgs&&... args)
    {
        static_cast<void>(id); // No use for id in the Device itself
        return device_.suspend(std::forward<TArgs>(args)...)
    }

    ...
};

Such queue is also implemented in embxx library. It resides in the embxx/device/DeviceOpQueue.h file.

Please note that ID Adaptor and Operations Queue are both Device layer classes. The serve as wrappers to actual peripheral control Device in order to expose the right interface to the upper layer Driver.

I2C Device

The only thing that remains is to properly implement I2C control device, which can be used by the DeviceOpQueue, which in turn is used by the IdAdaptor. The IdAdaptor object can be used with the existing Character Driver implemented to be used with the UART peripheral.

Based on the information above, the platform specific I2C control Device object must provide the following public interface:

class I2CDevice
{
public:
    // Single character type
    typedef std::uint8_t CharType;

    // ID type
    typedef std::uint8_t DeviceIdType; 

    // Context types
    typedef embxx::device::context::EventLoop EventLoopContext;
    typedef embxx::device::context::Interrupt InterruptContext;

    // Set various interrupt handlers
    template <typename TFunc>
    void setCanReadHandler(TFunc&& func);

    template <typename TFunc>
    void setCanWriteHandler(TFunc&& func);

    template <typename TFunc>
    void setReadCompleteHandler(TFunc&& func);

    template <typename TFunc>
    void setWriteCompleteHandler(TFunc&& func);

    // Start read for both contexts.
    void startRead(DeviceIdType address, std::size_t length, EventLoopContext);
    void startRead(DeviceIdType address, std::size_t length, InterruptContext);

    // Cancel read for both contexts.
    bool cancelRead(EventLoopContext);
    bool cancelRead(InterruptContext);

    // Start write for both contexts.
    void startWrite(DeviceIdType address, std::size_t length, EventLoopContext);
    void startWrite(DeviceIdType address, std::size_t length, InterruptContext);
        TContext context);

    // Cancel write for both contexts.
    bool cancelWrite(EventLoopContext);
    bool cancelWrite(InterruptContext);

    // Suspend/Resume
    bool suspend(EventLoopContext);
    void resume(EventLoopContext);

    // Helper functions to manage read/write during the interrupt
    bool canRead(InterruptContext);
    bool canWrite(InterruptContext);
    CharType read(InterruptContext);
    void write(CharType value, InterruptContext);
};

Such device to control I2C0 interface on RaspberryPi platform is implemented in src/device/I2C0.h file of embxx_on_rpi project.

EEPROM Access Application

The embxx_on_rpi project contains an application called app_i2c0_eeprom. It implements a parallel access to 2 EEPROMs connected to the same I2C0 bus, but having different addresses. The EEPROMs are accessed independently at the same time with read/write operations. These operations are queued and managed by the DeviceOpQueue object that wraps actual I2C control Device and forwards the requests one by one.

results matching ""

    No results matching ""